Since the early 17th century there were several centres of nianhua production. Among them the town of Yángliǔqīng (楊柳青) in Tiānjīn (天津) was extremely popular. Most people in that town were engaged in the manufacturing of nianhua. The production was huge with sales to many places in China and overseas. Nianhua artists introduced the technique of adding extra colours and brush strokes to the printing process. The processes were complicated but the outcome was marvellous producing art pieces of the highest qualities.

Besides Yángliǔqīng of Tiānjīn, there are Miánzhú (綿竹) of Sichuan (四川), Táohuāwù (桃花塢 ) in Sūzhōu (蘇州 ), Wéifāng yángjiā bù (濰坊楊家埠) in Shāndōng (山東). The styles were slightly different. I hope to present more information later about them.

In addition to the icons of religious figures in Part 1, the subject matter of nianhua expanded to still life and figures of everyday life filled with symbols of happiness and benevolent wishes.

The symbolic imagery was derived from Chinese mythology, folk beliefs and superstitions as well as certain peculiarity of the Chinese language and hieroglyphic writing.

Babies in red aprons (肚兜) and toddlers wearing bright, traditional dress were the most popular nianhua. The wish for sons has always been the most essential expectation.

The Lotus Bears Precious Seeds (蓮生貴子)
The Lotus Bears Precious Seeds (蓮生貴子)

 

榴開百子
As the Promegranate Opens – Many Seeds Appear (榴開百子)

 

Five Kinds of Happiness Fly Out of a Vase (瓶出五福)
Five Kinds of Happiness Fly Out of a Vase (瓶出五福)

 

子孫萬代
Sons and Grandsons – Ten Thousand Generations (子孫萬代)

 

Merit and Glory, Wealth and Eminence (功名富貴)
Merit and Glory, Wealth and Eminence (功名富貴)

 

The cock in the middle of the above print may be used to convey a message. Cock in Chinese is gongji (公雞) and the character gong is pronounced in the same way as the word which stands for 功 ‘merit’ or 功名 ‘a high position in the Emperor’s court’. The cock wakes up early and crows every day implying diligence and constant effort.

The three Stargods : (from the left) Shou-xing (壽星, the God of Longevity), Lu-xing (祿星, the God of Rank and Promotion), Fu-xing (福星, the God of Happiness)

Three Star Gods (福,祿,壽三星)
Three Star Gods (福,祿,壽三星)

 

Cai Shen (財神, The God of Wealth) brings wealth and prosperity.

Cáishén (財神)
Cáishén (財神)

 

Brightly coloured prints produced by modern mixed-media painting techniques, portraying model behaviour or a better future, have been a ubiquitous element of Chinese political culture from Imperial times until the present. As economic reform swept China in the 1980s, the styles have been changed but symbols of good luck were still used.

Of course the New Year pictures are no longer printed by the old woodblock printing but by modern digital printing.

 

The fish is fat and big (魚兒肥又大) (1970)
The fish is fat and big (魚兒肥又大) (1970)

 

Honour to the soldiers and martyrs (光榮人家) (1983)

 

Plump babies (胖娃娃) (1988)

 

Modern Caishen
The gods of wealth enter the home from everywhere, wealth, treasures and peace beckon. 路路財神進家門, 招財招寶招平安 (1993)

 

By comparing the old and modern prints, we can see how elegant are the old nianhua. The colours in the old nianhua are so subtle, aesthetic and graceful.

Some old nianhua have educational purpose. The cock in Merit and Glory, Wealth and Eminence (功名富貴) reminds people that diligence is essential to be successful.

 

Acknowledgements :

Patrick would like to thank the authors for their hard work in collating the prints.

 

Bibliography and further readings :

Maria Rudova, Lev Menshikov, Viacheslav Sobolev, Yurin Kirilin (1988) Chinese Popular Prints, Aurora Publishers, Leningrad

Landsberger, Stefan (1995) Chinese Propaganda Posters from Revolution to Modernization The Pepin Press, ISBN 90-5496-009-4

 

 

 

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2 thoughts on “Nianhua (年畫) Paintings for CNY Part 2 (Symbols of Good Luck)

  1. 年輕人和外國人未見過真實大小的年畫,很難領會年畫的美。
    古時年畫已經是大量印製,民間可以輕易得到,分享到一份祝福。年畫令我想起一件往事,多年前每逢春節,我會到學校講春節習俗,外國老師們都希望收到一些「紀念品」,我懶去唐人街買寫揮春用的紅紙,於是在家自己打印揮春。
    我先在白色宣紙上寫字,掃描入電腦,然後打印在紅色影印紙上,既快捷又便宜!

    Liked by 1 person

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